Pain in the hip, knee, and ankle can often be caused by bowlegs (varus deformity) or knock knees (valgus deformity). In other words, when our legs are not aligned straight at the hips, knees, and ankles, there can be an abnormal force across the knee. This often leads to pain, cosmetic deformity, and premature knee arthritis.
Surgical correction can help treat the deformity. With this minimally invasive treatment, your leg can be realigned. As a result, you’ll feel less pain, look better, and have healthier knees. We’d like to see you spend more time walking, running, and doing more of the physical activities you enjoy.
Genu varum (also called bow-leggedness, bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara), is a varus deformity marked by (outward) bowing at the knee, which means that the lower leg is angled inward (medially) in relation to the thigh's axis, giving the limb overall the appearance of an archer's bow. Usually medial angulation of both lower limb bones (femur and tibia) is involved.
Genu valgum, commonly called "knock-knee", is a condition in which the knees angle in and touch each other when the legs are straightened. Individuals with severe valgus deformities are typically unable to touch their feet together while simultaneously straightening the legs. The term originates from the Latin genu, 'knee', and valgus which actually means 'bent outwards', but in this case, it is used to describe the distal portion of the knee joint which bends outwards and thus the proximal portion seems to be bent inwards.
Rotational Deformities of Lower Extremities
Rotational deformities are common lower extremity abnormalities in children. Rotational problems include in-toeing and out-toeing. In-toeing is caused by one of the three types of deformity:metatarsus adductus, internal tibial torsion, and increased femoral anteversion. Out-toeing is less common than intoeing, and its causes are similar but opposite to those of in toeing. These include femoral retroversion and external tibial torsion.
Limb Lengthening (Femur,Tibia)
Limb lengthening works through a process called distraction osteogenesis. The bone to be lengthened (femur or tibia) is broken during surgery into two segments. The segments are slowly pulled apart, at a rate of one millimeter per day. For stature patients, the lengthening is performed by an intramedullary nail (the PRECICE) that is inserted inside the marrow cavity. New bone will form in the gap, resulting in increased length.
Knee Sports Injuries
Sports injuries are injuries that occur during sport, athletic activities, or exercising. In the United States, there are approximately 30 million teenagers and children combined who participate in some form of organized sport. Of those, about three million athletes age 14 years and under experience a sports injury annually. According to a study performed at Stanford University, 21 percent of the injuries observed in elite college athletes caused the athlete to miss at least one day of sport, and approximately 77 percent of these injuries involved the lower leg, ankle, or foot. In addition to those sport injuries, the leading cause of death related to sports injuries is traumatic head or neck occurrences. When an athlete complains of pain or an injury, the key to a diagnosis is to obtain a detailed history and examination.
A tear of a meniscus is a rupturing of one or more of the fibrocartilage strips in the knee called menisci. When doctors and patients refer to "torn cartilage" in the knee, they actually may be referring to an injury to a meniscus at the top of one of the tibiae. Menisci can be torn during innocuous activities such as walking or squatting. They can also be torn by traumatic force encountered in sports or other forms of physical exertion. The traumatic action is most often a twisting movement at the knee while the leg is bent. In older adults, the meniscus can be damaged following prolonged 'wear and tear'. Especially acute injuries (typically in younger, more active patients) can lead to displaced tears which can cause mechanical symptoms such as clicking, catching, or locking during motion of the joint. The joint will be in pain when in use, but when there is no load, the pain goes away.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACL Reconstruction)
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL reconstruction) is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament, located in the knee, to restore its function after an injury. The torn ligament can either be removed from the knee (most common), or preserved (where the graft is passed inside the preserved ruptured native ligament) before reconstruction an arthroscopic procedure. ACL repair is also a surgical option. This involves repairing the ACL by re-attaching it, instead of performing a reconstruction.
Cartilage Repair (Osteochondral Lesions)
An osteochondral defect refers to a focal area of damage that involves both the cartilage and a piece of underlying bone. These can occur from an acute traumatic injury to the knee or an underlying disorder of the bone. A chondral defect refers to a focal area of damage to the articular cartilage (the cartilage that lines the end of the bones).
Total Knee Replacement
Knee replacement, also known as knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability. It is most commonly performed for osteoarthritis, and also for other knee diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In patients with severe deformity from advanced rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, or long-standing osteoarthritis, the surgery may be more complicated and carry higher risk. Osteoporosis does not typically cause knee pain, deformity, or inflammation and is not a reason to perform knee replacement. Knee replacement surgery can be performed as a partial or a total knee replacement.